Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Mozart's Grace

by Scott Burnham

Perfection, revelation, incarnation, grace, redemption. Such metaphors resonate throughout the history of Mozart reception. We probably should not be surprised at their ubiquity, the ease of their fit over the past two centuries. Mozart’s seemingly infallible musical judgment, accounts of his miraculous ease, coupled with the Romantic notion of music as a mystically potent, invisible force makes perceptions like these seem second nature. If Mozart’s music has not maintained an explicitly Christ-like presence, it has at the very least been perceived as a locus of goodness. And yet one does not experience anything like the perfected motion of Christian temporality. Mozart’s music offers no master narrative of Paradise Lost and Regained, of overcoming and salvation. Rather Mozart stops just this side of damnation, and just this side of redemption. A kind of innocence is always in play, but not as origin and telos. Instead I have spoken of an “ever renewable loss of innocence.” To accept this notion is also to lay claim to an ever renewable embrace of innocence. Mozart teaches us that innocence can be a continually available rejuvenation of spirit rather than an all-or-nothing quality, once lost, lost forever.

In broad cultural terms, it is tempting to interpret the end of the age of Enlightenment as a loss of innocence, a loss of innocent faith in the transparency of the world. Romanticism then emerges as the opening up of a new space, both within and beyond, a space fashioned by loss but enchanted by longing. Mozart meets us at the threshold of this space, which is more or less the burden of E. T. A. Hoffmann’s assessment of Mozart in relation to Haydn and Beethoven. Transcendence and interiority are both intimated, rather than achieved. This is how I have chosen to hear those emergent passages that seem to lift off from the prevailing musical discourse, like a visitation of altered consciousness. But even more generally, Mozart’s music can be heard to hover: between innocence and experience, ideality and sensuousness, comedy and tragedy, sympathy and mockery, intimacy and transcendence. It offers no blind faith yet no paralyzing doubt; it is not just a longingly imperfect reach for the infinite (Schiller’s sentimental art) nor just a comfortably perfect grasp of the finite (Schiller’s naïve art); it is childlike yet knowing.
—from “Knowing Innocence,” the final chapter of Mozart's Grace (Princeton UP, 2013), 165–66.

Scott Burnham is Scheide Professor of Music History at Princeton University. His scholarly interests include the history of tonal theory, problems of analysis and criticism, and 18-and 19th-century music and culture. Burnham's previous book, Beethoven Hero (Princeton UP, 1995), won the 1996 Wallace Berry Award from the Society of Music Theory.


Mozart's Grace won the American Musicological Society's 2014 Otto Kinkeldey Award, given annually “to a musicological book of exceptional merit published during the previous year.” It is the longest running of the society's awards, having been presented since 1967.

The citation notes how Burnham's work “explores a beloved composer, whose music we adore. It does not provide the usual enumeration of the composer’s stylistic fingerprints, nor a typology of formal procedures. Instead, the author focuses on individual moments that, he feels, reveal what is most important about this music. Most of the book consists of close readings of many of his favorite passages. The analyses are sensitive, perceptive, and steeped in evocative language: the author succeeds in finding words to convey the ineffable, the things we sense when we experience this music. A rich study whose style verges on the poetic at times, the book addresses the elusive trope of beauty through the categories of grace, thresholds, renewal, and knowing innocence.”

Otto Kinkeldey
The Kinkeldey Award is funded by the estate of Otto Kinkeldey (1878–1966), founding member of the Society, President from 1935–36 and from 1941–42, and Honorary President until his death in 1966. Kinkeldey occupied the first chair in musicology in the United States, at Cornell University,  between 1923 and 1946, where he was also Cornell University Librarian. He held the BA from City College of New York (1898), MA from New York University (1900) and Ph.D. from the Royal Academic Institute for Church Music in Berlin (1909). In 1910 he was appointed Royal Prussian Professor at the University of Breslau, then served in the United States Army at the beginning of World War I and was named head of the Music Division at the New York Public Library (1915–23).

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Ellen T. Harris

The second of our video interviews reflecting on American musicology features Ellen T. Harris, who became president of the American Musicological Society in November 2014.


  • 00:22 on Handel and his friends
  • 05:20 on archives and historical narrative
  • 09:30 Handel as informant to Hanover
  • 11:30 musicology old and new
  • 14:55 new directions in musicology
  • 18:45 teaching as a mission for musicology

Ellen T. Harris is professor emerita at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and president of the American Musicological Society. The book they talk about here is George Frideric Handel: A Life with Friends (W. W. Norton, 2014); Harris's previous book, Handel as Orpheus: Voice and Desire in the Chamber Cantatas (Harvard UP, 2001), was awarded the 2002 Otto Kindeldey Award from the American Musicological Society and the 2002-03 Louis Gottschalk Prize from the Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies.

Thursday, December 11, 2014

William Scheide

Bill Scheide was known to musicians everywhere as owner of the Haussman portrait (second version, 1748) of J. S. Bach, widely known as “the Scheide Bach portrait.” It hung in his living room, where it was pretty well open to viewing by anyone who cared to drop by, including every Bach seminar--and there were plenty--offered by Arthur Mendel and his successors. It is said that Elliot Forbes's little boy once asked Scheide's little boy who that man was over the fireplace. “That's the man,” replied young Scheide, “who writes my daddy's music.”
Another boy who, earlier, knew the portrait was John Eliot Gardiner. It had been left during World War II by its German owner for safe-keeping with Gardiner's father in Dorset. “I passed it every day of my life until 1951,” he writes, “when it was sold to Bill Scheide” (see also the opening paragraphs of Gardiner's Bach: Music in the Castle of Heaven, Knopf, 2013). The Scheide Bach portrait has been bequeathed to the Leipzig Bach-Archiv, of which Scheide was founding curator and later director emeritus.

An accomplished pianist, organist, and oboist, he graduated from Princeton in 1936 and took a MA at Columbia in 1940 with a thesis on Bach. Identifying the centrality of the cantatas early on, he established the Bach Aria Group in 1946 (including among others Eileen Farrell and Julius Baker) and led it through 1980. He contributed some 10 articles to the Bach-Jahrbuch between 1959 and 2003.

What musicians might not know is that, at the request of Thurgood Marshall, Scheide provided the primary financial backing for the lawsuit Brown vs. Board of Education (1954); then went on to become the most generous single donor to the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.

The family fortune (Standard Oil) and passion for collecting books devolved to him from his grandfather, William T. Scheide, and father, John H. Scheide; Bill's room in the family house was just over the library. The Scheide Library is now housed in the Firestone Memorial Library at Princeton; it holds all four early printed bibles, first editions of Shakespeare and Milton, and manuscripts of Bach, Beethoven, and Schubert. At Princeton Scheide also financed the remodel of the Woolworth Center of Musical Studies to include a three-story facility now called the Arthur Mendel Music Library; endowed a professorship in music history and and undergraduate scholarship program; and underwrote a wide variety of initiatives in the humanities and arts. The Scheide Concerts at Princeton have in recent years produced an annual birthday concert to benefit worthy causes in the region.

Scheide made a major gift to the American Musicological Society's 50th-anniversary capital campaign (AMS 50) in memory of Arthur Mendel, funding in perpetuity a portion of one of the AMS 50 dissertation-year fellowships, and was a donor to the 75th-anniversary campaign (OPUS).

Scheide's 80th birthday was celebrated with the publication of The Same Purposeful Instant: Essays in Honor of William H. Scheide (Princeton University Library) and an honorary doctorate; his 90th, with the publication of For William H. Scheide: Fifty Years of Collecting: 6 January 2004 (Princeton University Library); his 95th, with a special issue of the Newsletter of the American Bach Society; his 100th, with conspicuous general merriment, televised.

Scheide died on November 14, 2014, at his home in Princeton, New Jersey. A formal obituary will appear in a forthcoming issue of the American Musicological Society's Newsletter.

Thursday, December 4, 2014

Christopher Reynolds

We are pleased to present the first of several video interviews reflecting on American musicology. Christopher Reynolds, immediate past president of the American Musicological Society, considers initiatives undertaken during his term of office and what he sees as the state of the discipline today.

Christopher Reynolds is Professor of Music at the University of California, Davis. His latest book, Wagner, Schumann and the Lessons of Beethoven’s Ninth, appears with the University of California Press in May 2015.

Sunday, November 30, 2014

The Eastman Studies

by Ralph P. Locke

A recent post on this blog mentioned “the staggeringly weighty displays of recent books” at the annual meeting of the American Musical Society (Milwaukee, 6–9 November 2014). Throughout the Milwaukee conference I kept hearing praise for one such exhibit: that of the University of Rochester Press and its sister firm in the UK, Boydell and Brewer. As founding editor of the URP’s Eastman Studies in Music, I was then frequently asked how the press, a newish player in the field, became so prominent in the fields of historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and music theory. Here, then, an essay that I put together about how the Eastman Studies series has developed. (An earlier version of this history appeared in two parts in 2009, HERE and HERE.)

Music can be a problematic topic for a book. Unlike novels or poems, plays or paintings, musical works cannot easily be represented in words or visual images. Furthermore, musical notation and detailed technical description can feel opaque to many music lovers. The net result has been a looming gap, for centuries now, between music as it is understood by musicians and the often superficial ways in which it has tended to be written about in books, magazines, and newspapers.
In order to try to fill this gap, many academic and niche publishers have developed a music-centered series with a relatively narrow focus, such as opera, American music, or music in one century. When, in the early 1990s, University of Rochester Press asked me to help them start an Eastman Studies in Music series, I agreed but urged that it be kept broad in regard to chronology, repertory, and scholarly approach. The dozens of books that have resulted range from historical studies of Renaissance-era Christian chant to close analyses of pieces by Bach and Ravel and from primary source material on Debussy and more recent figures (such as Steve Reich, György Kurtág, and conductor Claudio Abbado) to detailed accounts of trends in music and musical life in North America, the Czech lands, or mid twentieth-century China.

By casting its net wide, the Eastman Studies in Music series provides a wide range of critical and nuanced perspectives on musical composition and performance, on close analysis of music’s formal and expressive qualities, on musical performance across the centuries and around the world, and on the many historical and cultural contexts that have shaped music and its meanings for those who make it and love it.

The Hundredth Title

In Fall 2013 the series published its hundredth title. The French Symphony at the Fin de Siècle: Style, Culture, and the Symphonic Tradition is a splendid monograph by Andrew Deruchie, a young Canadian scholar who holds the position of Lecturer in Music at Otago University (New Zealand). Deruchie’s book focuses on the special challenges that composers in France faced in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when composing in a genre previously dominated by German-speaking composers (from Haydn to Brahms). Deruchie details the creative solutions to this dilemma that were adopted in one fascinating symphony after another by Camille Saint-Saëns, César Franck, Édouard Lalo, Vincent d’Indy, and Paul Dukas. (He had to leave out one of my favorite French symphonies: the Chausson. Perhaps he’ll write an article on it!) Outside reviewers praised Deruchie’s manuscript effusively, one noting that it offers “insights on every page.” The resulting book demonstrates the ongoing commitment of the University of Rochester Press to providing scholars and music lovers alike with books that add to previous knowledge about important topics yet also are engaging to read and attractive to the eye and in the hand.

The Advantages of a Broad Umbrella

The aim of the series—to select, develop, and produce books that would be varied yet of consistently high quality—was much easier to realize than I had expected: by coincidence, we seem to have started the series just when some major academic publishers were retrenching. As a result, manuscripts started arriving that often would have, a decade earlier, gone to a more established house, such as Yale University Press. Margaret G. Cobb, the doyenne of Debussy studies, contributed an urgently needed revised edition of her famous book The Poetic Debussy (1994). It went on to sell out in hard cover and paperback alike. (Like many URP books, it is now available again, thanks to advances made in the technology of on-demand reprinting.)

In the twenty-five years since the Press’s founding, the Eastman Studies series has published books on such varied topics as music publishing in sixteenth-century Venice, fugal theory in the Baroque era, the suites of Johann Sebastian Bach, and “the pleasure of modernist music” (e. g., Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Ligeti’s music in the film 2001). The initial decision not to narrow the focus of the series to one period or genre proved a big advantage: we could accept any book that was on an interesting and important topic, was engagingly written, and made a substantive contribution. The Eastman series has made available the first detailed studies of such important composers as Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Marianna Martines (whose works were performed publicly in Vienna during the Haydn-Mozart era), and, from the twentieth century, Dane Rudhyar, Luigi Dallapiccola, Leon Kirchner, Jean Barraqué, and Claude Vivier, plus three noted organist-composers: Charles-Marie Widor, Maurice Duruflé, and Pierre Cochereau.  Elliott Carter’s Collected Essays and Lectures (1996) quickly became one of the Press’s all-time best-sellers (in hard cover and paperback) and remains in print today.

Books You Can Hear

A book—like “the hills”—can be alive with the sound of music. The URP has provided CDs for Eastman Studies books on such topics as Indonesian music (The Gamelan Digul), the great Chinese erhu player Abing (Musical Creativity in Twentieth-Century China), and, more recently, some forgotten but charming—and socially revealing—German-language operettas composed in America (Music in German Immigrant Music Theater: New York City, 1840–1940). One title required two CDs and got them: Composing with Japanese Instruments, a practical guide (widely used in its original Japanese version) by the world-renowned composer Minoru Miki.

In recent years the series has released four books for which the author created a parallel website that contains additional musical examples (and sometimes audio versions thereof).  The combination of book and website seems the wave of the future, and the URP’s willingness to catch this wave has been welcomed by our authors.

Marks of Recognition

Our books have been extremely well received in the scholarly world as well as by reviewers in the general press (e.g., Times Literary Supplement and BBC Music Magazine). Numerous excerpts from reviews are collected on the page for the respective book at the Press’s website. Particularly heartening was this phrase from a review by James Garratt in Music and Letters of Scott Messing’s two-volume Schubert in the European Imagination, which, he said, “offers yet more evidence that the University of Rochester Press has become a highly significant player in the field.”  Several books have won nationwide prizes. A month ago, Drew Massey’s book John Kirkpatrick, American Music, and the Printed Page became the first winner of the ASCAP Virgil Thomson Award for Outstanding Music Criticism.

The URP/Boydell blog entitled From Beyond the Stave brought wide public attention to books in the Eastman Studies series.  The blog is now “frozen,” but all its posts can be read HERE. New books in the series are described in an electronic newsletter, The Posthorn. A substantial number of Eastman Studies books dealing with music in the United States have received a welcome subvention from the Howard Hanson Institute for American Music, thereby helping to lower the price to libraries and individual purchasers.

Toward Two Hundred

Eastman Studies continues to promote music scholarship written in a clear and engaging manner. The boards of the University of Rochester Press and of Boydell & Brewer anticipated the need for high-level books on music and appreciated that a series run by a team of scholars could meet that need. (I am assisted by an editorial board of six, including my Eastman colleagues Roger Freitas, Patrick Macey, and Robert Wason, plus Bonnie C. Wade, from the University of California, Berkeley, Sarah Fuller from SUNY Stony Brook, and William Caplin from McGill’s Schulich School of Music.) The work of the series is supported by URP’s alert editorial and production team. And I am delighted that URP two years ago established a parallel series under the direction of my Eastman colleague Ellen Koskoff: Eastman/Rochester Studies in Ethnomusicology.

In a time when funding for arts and humanities projects is under great strain, Boydell & Brewer and the University of Rochester Press are committed, in part through these two series—Eastman Studies and the new Ethnomusicology series—and also through Boydell’s own extensive music titles  to providing a forum for scholarly debate and research. Working together, Boydell—which likewise follows the model of the “broad umbrella” but, in addition, contains several more specialized series—and the University of Rochester Press demonstrate that serious research on music can still be published and at least break even for the publisher, even in the tight economic situation of the early twenty-first century.

Ralph P. Locke is Professor of Musicology at the University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music. Winner of the ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award for six of his articles, his most recent book is Musical Exoticism: Images and Reflections (Cambridge UP, 2009). His “prequel” to that book is appearing in April 2015 (likewise from Cambridge): Music and the Exotic from the Renaissance to Mozart.

Friday, November 28, 2014

A Major Crisis

by Steven Ilagan

NOTE: For a holiday offering we republish this post from Steven Ilagan's column “Tunespoon” as it appeared in the California Aggie campus newspaper (e-edition) on 13 November 2014, HERE. We like to encourage good writing anyway, and the sentiments expressed here will be familiar to much of our readership. 

Google “useless college degrees.” “Music,” along with a crappy stock photo of a confused man/woman in a graduation gown scratching his/her head in worried bewilderment, is on that list. I assure you.

I have heard it so, so, so many times. From unimpressed aunts and uncles, from my sometimes unsure parents, from inexplicably shocked fellow students. It’s a tough life, and it often feels unfair that this course of study that I’m embarking upon, with every passion I have within me, pales in comparison to the science-technology-engineering-mathematics fields. It doesn’t exactly help that UC Davis is a premier research university. My music degree, in comparison to the highly-regarded STEM universe, often feels like a death sentence. I know so many people who work in labs, who study in bays and farms, who have dreams of medical school, who take internship opportunities that will lead them to prosperous days of discovery—and for a living nonetheless.

And you have me, lost, not sure and maybe a little scared of the future, studying something I’m passionate about.

It’s not that I don’t have the opportunities I need. I have great classes. Many professors share the passion that their students strive to maintain. For example, I am enrolled in an amazing jazz composition class; our class is four students big and every Thursday our own, original material is read by student musicians and workshopped by our fantastic instructor. In another class, I’m finally learning the distinctions between European styles of opera and the way political influences informed music making in the Baroque era. My academic future is busy and bright: more composition, more one-on-one learning with a private instructor, more interaction with a small faculty. It’s nothing short of awesome.

And yet I still feel that skeptical dullness in your eyes when I tell you I’m a music major.
I know a lot of people will nod and say, “Oh, cool!” at some sort of attempt at sincere interest. But I don’t blame you for looking down on me. It’s been internalized since childhood that engineers make a lot of money. That high school teachers are underpaid. That doctors are the breadwinning geniuses of the world. That musicians won’t make a buck. That lawyers hold a noble, generously-paid occupation. That artists are often called “starving” for a reason. But know that, even with all that stigma, I want to be a musician—just like you want to be a doctor, or an anthropologist, or a mechanical engineer brainiac. I want to be a musician. Because you know what? My future is just as valid as yours.

Of course, it’s impossible to rewire year upon year of arts and humanities shaming in a heartbeat. Don’t forget—many music majors struggle with that same internalized self-doubt, with that same skepticism, with that same harmful expectation that we will never be as successful as we want. But we study in spite of what you think, what they think and most incredibly of all, what we ourselves think.

It’s indubitably a struggle to continue sometimes. I don’t have those same move-out-of-my-parents’-house, job-secure, food-on-the-table prospects to resort to when I feel like I’m falling. And it happens a lot, because I’m a college student just like you, just like every first- or second- or fourth- or fifth- or sixth year-student in Davis. I have my highs and I have my lows. Sometimes learning is the best, most fulfilling thing; sometimes it drives me to tears. I feel on top of the world, and in the next moment, the burden of my future crushes me to anxious crying, shattered remains.

I’m not asking you to kiss the feet of every music major that you see, to apologize profusely to every arts and humanities major that you’ve so discourteously wronged. I’m beseeching you to look upon us with validity, with respect, with dignity. Look me in the eye when I tell you I’m a music major, and just as I imagine you with your doctor coat or chemist goggles or engineering gloves, imagine me making a difference in peoples’ lives through my particular art.

Steven Ilagan, as a dual major in Music and English at UC-Davis, says he “enjoys light literary discourse.” He has been a devotee of Pitchfork since practically its inception, and chose the name for his own blog in homage.

Sunday, November 23, 2014

Honors 2014

Each year, the American Musicological Society names as Honorary Members longstanding members who have made outstanding contributions to further the society's objectives and the field of musical scholarship. This year there are four:

Jane Bernstein, Austin Fletcher Professor of Music, Tufts University
     Bernstein's scholarly writings include works on Renaissance Venetian music, 19th-century opera, and women’s studies. Her book Printing in Renaissance Venice: The Scotto Press (Oxford UP, 1998) won the Otto Kinkeldey Award. She has also received fellowships and grants from the Guggenheim Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, the American Philosophical Society, and the Gladys Delmas Foundation for Venetian Studies. She was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2005. She spent many years on eight different American Musicologcial Society committees, and served as president 2008–10.

Suzanne Cusick, Professor of Music, New York University
     Cusick's scholarship, impressive for its range and impact, encompasses Caccini and Monteverdi, gender and sexuality in early modern Italy and contemporary North America, and pioneering work on the use of noise, music, and gender coercion in the detention and interrogation of prisoners in the ongoing twenty-first-century war on terror. She has received numerous fellowships and awards including the Society for the Study of Early Modern Women Book Award (2010), the Philip Brett Award given by the LGBTQ Study Group of the American Musicological Society (2007), and a fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies.  Within the American Musicological Society, Cusick has served terms on the Board of Directors, the Program Committee, the Committee on the Annual Meeting, and the Publications Committee.

William F. Prizer, Professor of Music, emeritus, University of California, Santa Barbara
     Prizer's scholarship on the music of the Renaissance is remarkable in its erudition, quantity, and significance. He has published more than thirty articles on such topics as musical patronage, secular vocal music of northern Italy, and the source of the L’Homme armé tradition. His work draws on extensive archival sleuthing, sensitive musical analysis, and theories of gender, and it has appeared in leading journals and edited volumes. Among his many editions are the Libro Primo de la Croce: Canzone, Frottole, and Capitoli, and Courtly Pastimes: The Frottole of Marchetto Cara. Prizer has twice been a fellow at Villa i Tatti (the Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies) and has received grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Humanities Center, and the American Philosophical Society. He has been on the award committees for the H. Colin Slim and Claude Palisca prizes, and was editor of the Journal of the American Musicological Society.

Edward Roesner, Professor of Music, emeritus, New York University
     Roesner's editions of some of the core manuscripts of the 12th and 13th centuries, including the Roman de Fauvel, Florence 29.1, and the Notre Dame tripla and quadrupla in the Magnus liber organi are an exceptional achievement. In these editions he demonstrates his expertise in a range of related fields: 12th- and 13th-century polyphony, Gregorian chant, history of liturgy, music theory and aesthetics, paleography, and performance practice. He has received grants from the Guggenheim Foundation, the Herzog-August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, and the government of Monaco. In the American Musicological Society, Roesner has served on the Finance Committee, the Publications Committee, and the Committee on the History of the Society.

Corresponding Members
are those who at the time of their election are citizens of countries other than Canada or the United States and who have made particularly notable contributions to furthering the stated object of the American Musicological Society. This year there are three new Corresponding Members:

Mark Everist, Professor of Music, University of Southampton
     Everist's prolific scholarship on medieval music, French 19th-century stage music, Mozart, reception theory, and historiography have earned him many awards. These include the Westrup Prize, an Arts and Humanities Research Board Innovations Award, and from the American Musicological Society both the Ruth A. Solie Award for the best collection of essays on a musicological topic (which he shared with Annegret Fauser) and the H. Colin Slim award for a musicological article of exceptional merit. For the AMS Everist has been a member of the Program Committee and the Palisca Committee, and he has just finished a term as president of the Royal Musical Association of the United Kingdom

John Griffiths, University of Melbourne (1980–2011)
     A prolific scholar and performer, Griffiths is an authority in 16th-century Spanish music. His publications include Políticas y practices musicales en el mundo de Felipe II, La América española: proyecto y resistencia, and Neapolitan Lute Music (A-R Editions). As a performer (vihuela, medieval and Renaissance lutes, theorbo, chitarrone, and baroque and nineteenth-century guitars), he has recorded numerous CDs. His honors include election to the Australian Academy of the Humanities and to a term as president of the Musicological Society of Australia. Additionally, for his contributions to Spanish culture, he was knighted by King Juan Carlos II of Spain, making him an Oficial de la Orden de Isabel la Católica.

Ulrich Konrad, Professor of Musicology, University of Würzburg
     Konrad has published distinguished books on Bach and Handel, Mozart, and Brahms, a life and works of Mozart, and Beethoven’s string quartets, and has edited volumes for the Neue Mozart Ausgabe. For these he has been much honored, including the Silver Mozart Medal of the Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum Salzburg, the Dent Medal of the Royal Musical Association, and the Hermann Abert-Preis from the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung. Professor Konrad has served on many boards, including that of RISM (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales), and has been board chairman of both the Akademie für Mozart-Forschung der Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg, and of the Robert-Schumann-Forschungsstelle in Düsseldorf.